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2004年8月27日 田径、皮划艇

央视国际 2004年08月27日 15:26

  刘翔决战110米跨栏

  
田径 0:30 CCTV—5

  田径项目基础英语词汇

  Track and Field/Athletics 田径

  —Running 跑

  abreast start 并排起跑

  anchor 最后一棒(接力)

  approach run 助跑

  arena 竞技场

  athlete 田径运动员

  athetess 女运动员

  athletic field 田径场

  breast the tape 撞线

  curve 弯道

  decathlon 十项全能运动

  decathlete 十项全能运动员

  endurance 耐力

  femininity test 性别检查

  fire the pistol 鸣枪

  flame-lighting ceremony 火把点燃仪式

  hand off 传棒

  heptathlon 七项全能运动

  heptathlete 女子七项全能运动员

  hurdle 跨栏

  jump the gun 抢跑

  long distance race 长程跑

  intensive training 高强度训练

  marathon race 马拉松赛跑

  middle distance race 中程跑

  obstacle race 障碍跑

  pentathlon 五项全能

  pentathlete (女子)五项全能运动员

  record holder 记录保持者

  relay race 接力赛跑

  run-up 助跑

  sponge-rubber pad 海绵垫

  sprint 短跑

  starting blocks 起跑器

  stopwatch 秒表

  steeple chaser 障碍跑运动员

  tape measure 皮尺

  Track and Field/Athletics 田径

  —Jumping 跳

  attempt 试跳,试投

  clear the bar 过竿

  Fosbury flop 背越式跳高

  back style 背越式跳高

  distance jump 跳远

  drop out 弃权

  drug testing 药物检查

  high jump 跳高

  hurdle 跨栏

  jumping pit 沙坑

  jumping stand 跳高架

  long jump 跳远

  pole-vault 撑竿跳高

  pole vaulter 撑竿跳高运动员

  scissors jump 剪式跳高

  straddle jump 仰卧式跳高

  take off 起跳

  take-off board 起跳板

  trial jump 试跳

  triple jump 三级跳远

  Track and Field/Athletics 田径

  —Throwing 投掷

  cage 护笼

  chain ball 链球

  check-in 登记/检录

  circle band 限制圈

  discus 铁饼

  front cross-step (掷标枪)前交叉步

  hammer 链球

  javelin 标枪

  safe throw 有效试掷

  shot 铅球

  shot put 推铅球

  throwing circle 投掷圈

  throwing sector 投掷区

  Track and Field/Athletics 田径

  —Race Walking 竞走

  advancing foot 前进腿

  bent knee 屈膝(一种犯规动作)

  carriage 姿势

  disqualification 取消资格

  hip joint 髋关节

  lifting 离地

  stride 大步走;步幅

  swinging (手臂自由摆动地)轻轻地走

  thrust (腿)向前伸

  track events 径赛项目

  unbroken contact 不间断接触

  walking race 竞走比赛

  wind velocity 风速

  阅读和理解

  Track And Field 田 径

  Track and Field Events 田径项目

  Track Events

  Events on the track can be divided into several sections. On the flat, there are sprints, middle distance races and long distance races. There are also the four by one hundred metres relay and the four by four hundred metres relay. In addition, races are run over hurdles and barriers from one hundred and ten metres up to three thousand metres. Extreme distance races include the marathon over forty-two kilometers and the men’s fifty kilometer road walk.

  Most track events begin in lanes. From a crouching position in starting blocks, athletes respond to the firing of a starting gun. For sprint races up to four hundred metres, competitors stay in their lanes for the whole race. Over longer distances runners may break lanes. Results are decided by a photo finish. There are certain differences between men’s and women’s events. Women’s events are usually shorter and consist of fewer elements. For example, in multi-event competitions men take part in the decathlon which comprises ten events. Women participate in the heptathlon which is composed of seven events. The men’s sprint hurdle is over one hundred and ten metres. The women’s sprint hurdle is over one hundred metres. The obstacles are smaller and closer together. This takes into account the physical differences between male and female athletes.

  Some events are held outside the stadium. For example, the men’s fifty kilometer walk and the marathon are mainly run on the streets of the host city. However, the final lap always takes place in the stadium in front of the crowd of spectators.

  Most races are for individuals, but some are run in relay. Teams of four people pass a baton from hand to hand. This technique requires a high level of practice, split-second timing and good teamwork. It promotes collective responsibility and team spirit.

  Track athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and stamina, as well as self — confidence, concentration and mental toughness. The basic athletic skills are common to all sports.

  径 赛 项 目

  径赛项目可分为若干类。平跑项目有短跑、中距离跑和长距离跑,还有4×100米接力和4×400米接力。此外,有跨栏和障碍赛跑,距离由110米栏到3000米障碍跑。超常距离径赛项目有马拉松,距离为42公里以上,还有男子50公里公路竞走。

  大多数径赛项目在跑道上起跑。运动员采用蹲踞姿势,利用起跑器,听发令枪声作出反应起跑。短距离比赛,包括400米,在整个赛跑过程中运动员都按自己的道次跑。长跑运动员可以抢道(切入内道)。

  成绩由终点摄影的照片确定。男子与女子的(径赛)项目有一定区别。一般说来,女子跑的距离短一些,项目少一些。如,全能比赛男子要参加10项,女子则参加7项比赛。短距离跨栏,男子是110米,而女子则100米。栏的高度和栏间距也低些近些。这主要是考虑男女运动员之间体力上的差别。

  有的项目在体育场外进行。如男子50公里竞走和马拉松,主要在举办城市的大街上进行。但最后一圈都在运动场,在广大观众面前进行。

  大多数跑的比赛(races)是个人项目,但是接力跑例外。由四人组成一队用手传递接力棒,这一技术要求有高水平训练,时间必须把握准确并且配合默契。接力比赛能提高集体主义责任感和团队精神。

  田径运动员需要把速度、力量、耐力、柔韧和持久力结合起来,还必须有自信心,注意力集中,心理上稳定。田径运动的基本技术对所有其他运动项目具有普遍意义。

  Field Events

  Events in the field can be divided into two sections: jumping and throwing. Jumping events include the high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. Throwing events comprise the javelin, discus, hammer and shotput.

  Whereas track races are measured by time, accurate to one hundreth of a second, field events are measured by distance or height in metres. Every athlete is allowed three attempts to achieve a qualifying distance or height. If he is successful, he progresses to the next round.

  Except the javelin, throwing events take place inside a throwing circle. There is no run-up. Instead, the athlete rotates his body across the circle and releases his missile using a combination of explosive strength and speed.

  Jumping events require an approach run in order to generate speed. The athlete must hit the take-off point on the proper foot, or hit the take-off board without overstepping the line. Vaulters also use a run-up to convert horizontal speed into vertical lift. The pole is made of fiberglass which is extremely flexible. Jumpers and pole vaulters land in a pit filled with sand or foam rubber.

  Field events require highly technical specialized skills. The decathlon and heptathlon include both track and field events and are suitable for the all-round athlete. Results are measured by the combined total number of points for all events.

  Field athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, balance, good footwork and coordination.

  田 赛 项 目

  田赛项目可分为两类,跳跃和投掷。跳跃项目包括跳高、跳远、三级跳远和撑竿跳高。投掷项目包括标枪、铁饼、链球和铅球。

  径赛项目由时间测定(成绩),精确至百分之一秒,而田赛项目则由距离或高度,以米和厘米测定。每位运动员允许试跳(投)三次,以成绩确定是否有资格参加下一轮比赛。

  除标枪外,投掷项目都在投掷圈内进行,不用助跑。运动员靠在限制圈内的身体旋转,运用爆发力和速度把器械(投掷物)抛出。

  跳跃项目需要助跑,以产生速度,运动员必须用起跳脚踏上起跳点或起跳板,而不能超越起跳线。撑竿跳高运动员也使用助跑,把水平速度转化为纵向力量。撑竿是由纤维玻璃钢制造,具有良好的柔韧性,跳跃项目的运动员和撑竿跳运动员在由沙子或泡沫橡胶作成的坑(垫)上着地。

  田赛项目要求有高水平的专项技术和技巧。十项和七项运动都含有径赛和田赛两类项目。这对全能项目运动员来说是适宜的。(全能项目)成绩是由参赛各项成绩所得分数的总和确定。

  田赛运动员需要把速度、力量、耐力、平衡、合理的步法和协调性很好地结合起来。

  皮划艇项目基础英语词汇

  6 Canoe/Kayak 皮划艇

  blade 桨叶

  bow 船首

  cockpit 座舱

  crew’s marshal 领桨手

  kayak 皮艇

  keel 龙骨(压舵龙骨)

  pitch 纵划;颠簸

  rudder 艇舵

  slalom pole 回旋标杆

  sternman 尾桨手

  阅读和理解

  Canoeing

  Canoeing is a water sport practiced in small boats called canoes or kayaks. “Kayak” is an Eskimo word for a canoe made out of sealskin. The Canadian canoe is propelled by canoeists in a kneeling position. The kayak is propelled by kayakers in a sitting position. They use a paddle which may be single-bladed or double-bladed.

  Competitions take place on flat water courses. There are sprint races over five hundred metres and a thousand metres; and distance races over five thousand metres and ten thousand metres. International events are held for one-man, two-man and four-man kayaks. Events are also held for one-man and two-man Canadian canoes.

  North American Indians and Eskimos on Greenland were the first people to build canoes. Flat water canoeing was first included in the Olympics at Berlin in 1936.Slalom canoeing was introduced to the Olympics at Munich in 1972.

  Dominant nations in canoeing include Russia, Germany and East European countries. Canoeing requires strength, stamina, balance, coordination and great determination.

  皮 划 艇 运 动

  皮划艇是使用小船的水上运动。这些小船叫划艇(canoes)或叫皮艇(kayaks)。凯艾克(kayaks)是爱斯基摩语的名称。这种小船是用海豹皮制成的。划艇(Canadian canoe 加拿大划艇)是由划艇桨手(canoeists)用跪姿划行的。皮艇则是由皮艇桨手用坐姿划行的。他们都使用单桨,但是桨可以是单桨叶,也可以是双叶的。

  竞赛在平静水面上进行。短距离赛包括500米和1000米;长距离有5000米和10000米。国际比赛项目有单人,双人,四人皮艇,而且有单人,双人划艇。

  北美的印第安人和格陵兰岛的爱斯基摩人是最早制造和使用皮划艇的民族。在平静水面进行皮划艇竞赛,在1936年柏林奥运会上第一次列入比赛项目。划艇回旋赛,1972年列入慕尼黑奥运会比赛。

  在世界皮划艇运动中居主导地位的国家有:俄罗斯,德国,东欧等国家。皮划艇运动要求运动员具有力量、耐力、平衡、协调和巨大的决心和毅力。

(编辑:晓辛来源:CCTV.com)