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5月25日聊天室 

央视国际 (2005年05月26日 10:34)

  聊天室--鲸

  赵: 两位见过的世界上最大的动物是什么吗?

  田: 我见过最大的是大象

  大: 我见过海洋馆里的鲨鱼

  赵: 那你们见到的都不是最大的动物。

  大: 我知道了,你说的世界上最大的动物是鲸鱼。

  赵: 没错,你看就是这个。今天我们要谈的话题就是鲸鱼,whale,首先来看下今日看点。

  体型巨大的蓝鲸,性情温顺的露脊鲸,引喉高歌的驼背鲸,机智善良的海豚,聪颖凶猛的虎鲸,在今天的节目中我们将与你一同走进鲸鱼的世界,感受鲸鱼的无穷魅力,体味它们的喜怒哀乐。

  本期关键词:whale 鲸

  赵:提到鲸鱼,首先要提到它的大,比如世界上最大的动物――蓝鲸。在讲蓝鲸之前呢,我想先问问David老师,“大”都能用什么词来形容?

  大:如何表达“大”

  great (a great mountain一座大山 )

  big (a big cheese 要人)

  colossal 巨大的尺寸、范围或程度使人敬畏;无限的 ( a colossal monument

  巨大的纪念碑)

  enormous (an enormous plate of food 很大的一盘食物)

  gigantic bulky 大的, 容量大的, 体积大的(a bulky sweater 宽大的毛线衣)

  giant ( a giant wave 巨大的波浪; a giant impact 巨大的冲击力 )

  huge (an huge elephant 大象)

  tremendous (a tremendous explosion 巨大的爆炸)

  赵:学习了这么多大的说法,那么今天我们的主角鲸鱼到底有多大呢,下面有一个小片,让你们一目了然。

  比较鲸鱼大小的小片

  大:真是难以置信啊。蓝鲸的大动脉里可以爬进一个小孩,它的心脏就跟一辆小轿车那么大。

  田:是啊,最小的海豚只相当于蓝鲸的尾鳍那么大。

  赵:怎么样,没想到吧。更多不可思议的还在后面呢。接下来大家将看到世界上最大的动物蓝鲸,请屏住呼吸,睁大眼睛。

  最大的鲸鱼――蓝鲸

  More than a hundred feet long and weighing a hundred tons, the blue whale is the largest animal ever to live on the earth, surpassing any dinosaur.

  Yet as large and loud as they are , blue whales are among the most elusive of all creatures.

  赵:看来蓝鲸比恐龙还要大,真是伟大的生物。

  surpassing , the most elusive of all creatures

  领略过了最大的鲸鱼,再来看看鲸鱼家族中的袖珍一族――海豚

  田:啊?海豚也算是鲸鱼吗?

  赵:没想到吧,从分类上来讲,海豚属于鲸类中的齿鲸。我想观众朋友们一定想看看海豚在大海中游荡的情景吧,一起来看一下。

  toothed whale 齿鲸和 toothless whale 须鲸

  immersed 沉入的,沉思的

  最小的鲸鱼――海豚

  Though many people are unaware of it , dolphins, along with porpoises, are actually toothed whales, the smallest of some 75 whale species in the world.

  18’00” Most whales, like the humpbacks, have to be sought out, but dolphins often come to us.

  Dolphins spend their lives immersed in a sea of sound.

  They use whistles to keep in touch and rapid clicks to examine their world through echolocation.

  赵:正如片中所说,海豚一直被视为人类最亲近的朋友,它们很友善很聪明,并经常给人以帮助。

  田:海豚很聪明,它们对人有莫名的亲近感。古时候有些船只在迷失航向的时候,是海豚把人们引领到了陆地上。

  赵:还有现在用的雷达都是从海豚身上学来的。然而人类却在有意无意中伤害了海豚,接下来我们要看到的就是一只叫巴拿马的海豚的故事。

  巴拿马的故事

  Hi, I’m Panama, a lovely dolphin. Like my friends, I used to swim happily in the sea. However, when I was captured by human beings, my joyful days came to an end. I was locked in a small cage and forced to perform repeatedly to amuse spectators. For 17years, I was locked in that cage without any opportunity to swim in the sea, which is my real home. I couldn’t bear it any more. So finally one day I escaped from the cage and swam back to my home----the colossal blue ocean. Luckily, I was received by a dolphin tribe. And now, my job is to take care of the other little dolphins in our tribe.

  赵:片子中我们看了海豚捕食小鱼的场面,可你们知道像巨鲸这种动物以什么为食物吗?

  大:我知道须鲸吃磷虾krill和小鱼small fish

  赵:正确,那你知道它们是怎么吃磷虾的吗?

  大:不知道,一边游一边张着大嘴吧。

  赵:你说的是一种方法,但接下来大家要看到的捕食方法可能你们想都没想过。

  blue Humpbacks的气泡撒网

  1.须鲸的气泡撒网

  Humpbacks的气泡撒网

  田:真的太壮观了!以后我一定要亲眼目睹。

  大:Humpbacks驼背鲸的游速能达到20海里/时,每年它们迁移两次,四月从南极洲出发,每天游300公里,然后稍微停一下。六七月份到达马达加斯加岛等温暖的海域,在那儿交配繁殖。

  2.食物链

  田:我有一个疑问,像这么大的鲸鱼怎么只吃小鱼和磷虾?另外它们有天敌吗?

  赵:这就不得不先讲一下食物链。food chain,food cycle

  小鱼吃浮游生物,大鱼吃小鱼,鲨鱼、虎鲸吃大鱼,鲨鱼、鲸鱼死后变成腐尸沉到海底被食腐鱼类食用并滋生出浮游生物,如此循环。自然中的食物链已经延续了几千万年。

  大:但我要补充一下,如果食物链中的鲸鱼半年没有磷虾和浮游生物吃的话也没关系。

  田:啊?为什么?它们不就会饿肚子吗?

  大:让我来告诉你其中的奥妙,因为鲸鱼是有名的节食高手。在它们离开捕食区游往哺育区的大半年中它们将什么都不吃,体重将比出发时少三分之一。你们要不相信,看看下面的短片吧。

  3.节食高手

  A blue often drives krill to the surface, then lunges to engulf them, clamping its huge mouth shut like a trap while on its side.

  Comb-like filters in its mouth, called baleen act like sieves, capturing the krill as the water drains away.

  The whale simply swallows the meal that’s left.-----the ocean of plankton, larval fish and tiny shrimp called krill collectively the greatest mass of protein in the entire world.

  But the great baleen or toothless whales―also filter feeders―must find greater concentrations of it elsewhere or they’ll starve.

  The great whales’ search for food can force them to journey across an entire ocean.

  Masters of starvation, they can survive on their blubber while they wait for the plankton swarms to reappear.

  the rarely seen blue whale

  赵:你们能坚持几天不吃饭?

  田:两天吧

  大:三天吧

  赵:现在有人能四十多天不吃饭只喝水,并载入吉尼斯世界纪录。但跟我们片中的节食高手比起来真是小巫见大巫啊。

  鲸鱼不为人知的一面:

  1.智慧与凶残并举的虎鲸

  赵:欢迎回来。我想人们对鲸鱼着迷很大程度上是由于它们的神秘,今天我们就将带大家一起去探索这些神秘的海洋霸主。首先是处在海洋食物链最顶端的虎鲸。

  田:提到虎鲸,令我想起了在海洋馆看到的虎鲸表演,非常精彩。

  虎鲸在训练员的指挥下能做出各种高难度的动作,如作揖鼓掌,把驯兽员从水中顶起等。

  赵:我记得曾经看过一部电影叫《鲸鱼威利》,里面的主角虎鲸Willy和人类建立起了亲密的感情,情节十分感人。接下来大家将看到的也是一只叫Willy的虎鲸,但此Willy非彼Willy,一起来听听它有什么话要跟大家说吧。

  I’m Willy,a killer whale. People usually call me “Lord of the Sea”. Look at me, see how beautiful I am! But don’t think for a minute that I’m a weakling. Actually, we killer whales are at the top of the food chain, and we can easily gulp down most other sea animals. Look at this sea lion. It will certainly be my next meal. When I feel excited, I will jump out above the ocean surface or sing in a low voice beneath the surface. Although we are good at swimming, we are always in fear of being captured by human beings, because a great number of my whale friends have been caught and locked in cages. Every day, they are forced to perform in boring routines for human audiences. They are so miserable!

  2. 动听的鲸之歌

  赵:欢迎回来。刚才看过了虎鲸,现在来看看另一种同样神奇的鲸鱼驼背鲸。

  大:我听说在1960年代生物学家发现驼背鲸会唱歌,而且歌声会传到几千英里之外的地方。

  田:我也听说过,而且它们用歌声交流,传达爱意。有趣的是,驼背鲸在水中一唱就是二十四个小时。而且不只驼背鲸,还有很多鲸鱼都是天生的歌手,像抹香鲸就会不停地发出咔哒咔哒的尾声,海豚的叫声大家就更熟悉了。。

  赵:你们说了这么多,不如让我们来竖起耳朵听听吧。

  We do know that only the males sing. It seems to be done to attract females and to challenge other males.

  Like human singers, humpbacks often employ rhymes apparently to help them remember complex songs.

  Suspended head down and motionless, they sometimes sing for hours at a time.

  The songs are shatteringly loud.

  Like humans, whales are air breathers.

  They may be assisted by the calls of distant whales beacons to guide them through the deep.

  3.母与子

  赵:当然歌声也是母鲸与孩子之间交流的工具。在大海中,最牢固的群体关系莫过于母鲸与子鲸。

  大:因为离开母鲸,幼鲸在大海中不可能独自生存。

  田:我听说在驼背鲸的幼鲸出生后的半年中它将只以富含50%的蛋白质的母乳为食,基本不吃别的东西。等巡游到捕食区才平时享用第一顿美味的磷虾大餐。

  赵:生物学家黛比 让我们来看看Misty与它的孩子Echo的故事吧。

  Misty和Echo的短片

  Young calves are often playful swimming right up to get a closer look at me. But their mothers are always nearby. Humpback mothers are pregnant for about a year. They give birth to a singer calf that weights two to three tons. While the baby is nursing, it’s thought to gain about a hundred pounds a day in the first few weeks. Like humans, whales are air breathers. When Echo was born, her mother most likely pushed her to the surface for her first breath of air.

  A mischievous calf (幼鲸)will sometimes drape its body over its mother’s blowhole so she can’t breathe.

  反思与拯救

  濒临灭绝的露脊鲸

  赵:欢迎回来。看了这么多鲸的故事,不知大家有什么样的感受。众所周知,鲸鱼中的很多种早已属于濒危动物。

  田:对,尤其是大西洋中的露脊鲸,更是被扑杀到只剩下两三千头。

  赵:接下来的片子就将向大家讲述露脊鲸的现状。

  Once found along the coast of every continent the right whale was hunted to the edge of extinction.

  On average, right whales give birth to one calf every three years.

  Fewer than ten white calves are ever alive on the planet at the same time.

  Tail slapping and breaching serve many purposes.

  16’57”Eye to eye across the gulf between species.

  赵:Eye to eye across the gulf between species. 不同种族,眼神相汇。

  真的说得非常好。现在的人们已经开始试着通过与鲸鱼共有的方式同鲸鱼“对话”。以前靠捕鲸为生的人们现在大都该行经营期鲸鱼观光业。

  像蓝鲸一样,露脊鲸是现今地球上最濒危的鲸鱼种类。

  大:没错,海洋学家曾告诫,有些鲸鱼如果再不加以有效的保护,就会在未来五十年中彻底从这个星球上绝灭。

  田:那我们就再也听不到露脊鲸和抹香鲸动听的歌声了。

  田:北极露脊景鲸每三年才产一胎,怀胎长达一年,而幼鲸成活的几率又不高,要受到很多条件的制约。如果哺育中的母鲸出了意外,那后果更为严重。

  大:我还记得1992年一头叫德里拉的母鲸在海湾哺育幼鲸时被一条渔船撞伤后死亡,它多年来一直是研究者的好朋友。现在它的遗骨被放在加拿大的一家博物馆中。

  和鲸鱼有关的英语表达

  a whale of a time 玩得痛快

  a whale of a story 夸张的事情,吹牛皮

责编:兰华  来源:CCTV.com

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