Source: CCTV.com

11-01-2007 16:28

北京是中华人民共和国的首都,是中国政治、经济和文化的中心。北京具有非常悠久的历史,是中国历史文化名城。在这座城市里有着众多的名胜古迹,已列入世界文化遗产名录中的有:世界闻名的长城、中国园林博物馆—颐和园、世界最大的祭天神庙—天坛、故宫博物院等。

万里长城是中国历史上最伟大的建筑工程和国防防御工程并被称作中古世界七大奇观之一。1987 年被联合国教科文组织列为世界人类历史文化遗产保护的项目。万里长城从建造至今日已有两千多年的历史。它东起渤海之滨的山海关, 经过河北、山西、内蒙古、陕西、宁夏等省和自治区,西至甘肃省嘉峪关,沿着起伏的山脉和茫茫的沙漠,绵延一万二千余里。

长城在历史上曾经为防御北方游牧民族的侵扰,保障北部边疆一代人民的生产和生活起过重要作用。同时,也对北方劲吹的风沙起了阻挡作用。

长城是中华民族勤劳智慧、坚强毅力的象征,是中华民族和世界人民共同的历史财富,是人类历史的奇迹。凡到过中国的外国友人,都把游览长城作为不可缺少的参观旅游项目。“不到长城非好汉”已经成为旅游者的一句名言,他们都想登上长城,亲眼看一看这座雄伟的历史丰碑。

北京故宫博物院位于北京市中心,是在中国明清时代皇宫及收藏的基础上建立起来的综合性博物馆。1987 年被联合国教科文组织列入“世界文化遗产”名录。

故宫博物院又称紫禁城。中国明代第三位皇帝朱棣夺取皇位后,决定迁都北京,并开始营造这座宫殿,明永乐十八年(1420年)紫禁城落成。从那时起到辛亥革命共有24 位皇帝曾在这里生活和居住并对全国进行统治。

紫禁城四面环有10 米高的城墙和52 米宽的护城河,占地面积约78万平方米。城墙四面各设城门一座。其中南面的午门和北面的神武门现专供参观者游览出入。城内宫殿建筑布局沿中轴线东西两侧展开。红墙黄瓦,画栋雕梁,金碧辉煌。殿宇楼台,高低错落,壮观雄伟,在此漫步仿若人间仙境。前来旅游者对此赞不绝口。

天坛是世界上最大的祭天神庙。它坐落在北京故宫的东南方向,总面积为270 万平方米,比故宫还要大四倍。

中国的皇帝号称“天子”,即“天的儿子”。皇帝每年都要祭祀神灵保佑国泰民安,如需要祭祀的有:地神、水神、农业神、军事神、社会神、宗教神、市民神,以及自己祖宗的牌位等。祭祀活动是皇帝的主要工作之一,一年四季不断。因此,皇帝祭祀的建筑也很多,遍及北京城各处,且各有特色,成为北京的一道风景线。北京现今天安门东侧的劳动人民文化宫曾是皇帝祭祖的地方、西侧的中山公园是祭祀丰收神的地方。北京北有地坛祭地,南有天坛祭天,东有日坛祭太阳,西有月坛祭月亮。但天坛最为光彩,气宇非凡,是古建筑中出类拔萃的代表。 现在每天到天坛游览的游客络绎不绝,流连忘返,天坛内最值得参观的包括:祈年殿、皇穹宇及环绕皇穹宇的回音壁。

颐和园位于北京西北郊,距市中心约19 千米,是中国清代的皇家园林和行宫。颐和园原名清漪园,建成于1764年,它占地290 公顷。园内分为宫廷区、前山前湖区、后山后湖区三大景区,共有殿堂楼阁、亭台水榭3000 余间,是皇帝皇后政治活动和游憩的地方。1860年被英法联军焚毁,1888年慈禧太后挪用海军经费500 万两白银重建该园,历时10 年,竣工后改为现在的名字“颐和园”。

Translation:

Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the nation's centre for politics, economy and culture. Enjoying a long and rich history, Beijing ranks as one of China's best-known cultural and historical cities. Here you'll find numerous heritage sites and wonderful examples of ancient architecture,including those already on the World Heritage List: the world-famous Great Wall, China's Museum of Gardens — the Summer Place, the world's largest temple to pay respects to the heavens, the Temple of Heaven, and the Forbidden City Palace.

The Great Wall of China is one of the "Seven Wonders of the World", as well as a grand feat of architecture and defense. In 1987, it became listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Over two thousand years have passed since the construction of the Great Wall began. Starting at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass) near the Bohai Sea in China's east, the provinces and autonomous regions it passes included Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Ningxia, extending to Jiayuguan of western China's Gansu province. The entire length of over6,000 kilometers (over 12,000 li, each li is half a kilometer) stretches over undulating mountain ranges and an endless desert.

The Great Wall was instrumental in protecting northern China from the attacks of nomads, and at the same time, it lessened the destructive forces of the wind and sand from the north.

The Great Wall is seen as a symbol of the Chinese people's intelligence, tenacity and industriousness, It also belongs to the world as an invaluable part of heritage. Overseas visitors often put the Great Wall at the top of their must-see list. "You are not a hero unless you've been to the Great Wall" has become a well known motto among travellers. By climbing the grand structure, they too experience the history and magnificence of the Wall.

The Beijing Gugong (Imperial Palace) Museum is situated in the center of Beijing, It is a treasure trove of architecture, artifacts and history and also has gained World Heritage List status by the UNESCO in 1987.

Gugong Museum is also called the Purple Forbidden City. After his ascension, Zhu Di, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, decided to move the national capital to Beijing and build this palace. The Palace was completed in 1420, the 18th year of the Yongle period during the Ming Dynasty. From then until the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, which saw the overthrow of China's ruling Qing Dynasty, a total of 24 emperors resided and ruled here.

The 780,000 square meter Forbidden Palace is surrounded by walls ten-meters high and a moat 52 metres wide, and there are gates at four sides of the city walls. Wumen (Meridian Gate)in the south and Shenwumen (Gate of Divine Military Genius) in the north are the entrance and exit points for visitors. The layout of the Forbidden City is based on a Chinese cosmic diagram of the universe that clearly defines the north-south and east-west axes. With its crimson walls and golden tiles, painted pillars and sculpted beams, the spectacular grandeur and masterful workmanship often leave visitors enthralled. A walk among the different palaces, pavilions and halls is like a journey back in time or being transported into a different world.

The Temple of Heaven is the world's largest temple for heaven-worshipping. Situated to the south-east of the Forbidden Palace, its area is a massive 2.7 million square meters, four times the size of the Forbidden City.

China's emperors were called "Tianzi" or "Son of the Heavens", hence it was their responsibility to pray to the gods in order to bless the nation, including those gods who represent Earth, Water, Agriculture, Military, Society, Religion, Civilians and the ancestors. Worshipping the gods was one of the Emperor's major functions and there were related activities all-year round. Thus, Beijing abounds with these architectural marvels, each with their own characteristics. The Workers' Cultural Palace to the east of Tian'anmen Square was where the Emperor used to pray to his ancestors. Zhongshan Park to the west of Tian'anmen is where they prayed to the Harvest God. There is the Temple of Heaven in the south, the Temple of Earth in the north, the Temple of Sun in the east, and the Temple of the Moon in the west. Of these, the Temple of Heaven is by far the finest, most magnificent representation of ancient Chinese architecture. The Temple draws huge crowds of visitors each day, and renowned tourist attractions include: the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest (Qiniandian), the Imperial Vault of Heaven (Huangqiongyu) and those famous Echo Walls around the Vault.

The Summer Palace is located in the north-western suburbs of Beijing, around 19 kilometres from the city centre,and is the best preserved Qing dynasty royal garden and palace in China.

Built in 1764, the Summer Palace (Yiheyuan-Garden of Peace and Harmony) which was named originally as Qingyiyuan (Garden of Clear Ripples), occupies 290 hectares. Divided into three areas: palace, front hill and lake, rear hill and lake and this tribute to the extravagant imperial lifestyle encompasses over three thousand halls, pavilions, platforms and lakeside marquees. Here the emperor and empress conducted administration, entertained, and relaxed in style. In 1860, the Summer Palace was burned to the ground by the Anglo-French allied forces. In 1888 the Empress Dowager used naval funds of 5 million taels of silver to rebuild the palace. The reconstruction took ten years and had a new name, "Yiheyuan" after completion.

 

Editor:Liu Fang