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  随着避孕药的广泛使用,另外一种社会现象开始引起人们关注。

  Liz Watkins

  U.S. News & World Report warned about sexual anarchy. What’s so interesting about this coverage is that while, you know, some saw the pill as the decline of western civilization and others saw it just merely as...as shoring up American civilization, there...they shared the idea that...that sex outside of marriage was a bad thing. And whether they thought the pill would contribute to it or not contribute to it, both sides, both conservatives and liberals tended to agree that um, women should not be promiscuous.

  美国新闻和世界报道发出了,性行为趋向混乱的警告。这其中有两种观点,一些人认为避孕药的出现是西方文明的衰退,另一些人则认为这是美国文明的兴起。但是他们有一点共识,婚外性生活是不正确的。无论他们是否认为这一现象,是由避孕药所引起的,这些保守派人士或者自由主义者都同意,女性不应到滥交。

  Andrea Tone

  It was the ultimate double standard, because in the late 1950’s condoms were freely available and you didn’t see social commentators up in arms about how condoms in the 1950’s would increase male promiscuity. So female virtue is held up to a much higher standard.

  这是典型的双重标准,50年代末期,避孕套已经很普遍了,但是却没有哪个社会评论家跳出来,指责避孕套造成男性滥交。而女性现在却要受到更加严格的审视。

  John Rock was also concerned about morality, but he fervently believed the Pill did not conflict with the tenets of his church.

  约翰·洛克也考虑过道德方面的问题,但他仍然坚信,避孕药不会与他的信仰相冲突。

  Margaret Marsh

  He said, look, he said, this doesn’t put a barrier between sperm and egg. All it does is artificially create a safe period. And the Catholic church says it’s okay to have intercourse during your safe period. Well, if you take a pill that guarantees you a safe period, what’s the difference? And he thought it was a pretty good argument.

  他说过,这并不会将精子与卵子隔开,它只是创造了一个安全期。而教堂方面也说在安全期是可以有性行为的。也就是说你通过吃药,可以肯定获得安全期,有什么不妥?他觉得这个论据很充分。

  Rock saw himself as the man capable of changing the Vatican’s stance on the Pill. Putting his reputation on the line, in 1963, he published a book called The Time Has Come.

  洛克认为他自己有能力改变梵蒂冈对于避孕药的态度。1963年,他决心放手一搏,出版了一本书《觉悟》。

  John Rock sync: The...the clerical response to my book has been most gratifying and largely along what...what somebody else called “the Party line,” as expressed by Cardinal Cushing.

  牧师们对书的反映很令人欣慰,甚至波士顿的主教本人都亲口表示对书很高的评价。

  Margaret Marsh

  John Rock became the Pill’s chief promoter and chief publicist. He became in the sixties the face of the Pill. I mean you can’t open a Good Housekeeping magazine in the 1960’s without seeing his face. So John Rock as a Catholic probably did an enormous amount to encourage women to take the Pill.

  约翰·洛克变成了避孕药的推广者和评论家。成了60年代避孕药的代言人。在任何一般家庭杂志中都可以看到他。也许约翰·洛克本人作为天主教徒,也在很大程度上鼓励了女性们服用避孕药。

  Catholic women began to pressure the hierarchy to loosen their position on birth control. When the Vatican established a papal commission to study the Pill in 1964, many believed the Church was about to reverse the doctrine it had held for centuries.

  天主教的女信徒们也开始向向教会施压,要求放松避孕限制。1964年,梵蒂冈召开专门会议研究避孕药问题。很多人相信,教廷很快就要否认坚持了几个世纪的守则了。

  Leslie Tentler

  The church could change its discipline, for example, on eating meat on Friday. And you know, you might, if you were a midwesterner and you couldn’t get fresh fish in the 50's, ..... you might be annoyed at all the tuna fish casserole you’d had to consume, but it hadn’t fundamentally changed your life. But if you had struggled with the teaching on contraception, then to have the church change its position is something with many more potential consequences.

  教会可以更改一些借条,比如说周五食荤,如果你住在美国中西部,在50

  年代是吃不到鲜鱼的,你也许会对餐桌上金枪鱼罐头做的菜感到厌烦,但这不会从根本上改变你的生活。但是涉及到避孕问题,人们用斗争的方式迫使教会让步,可能还会造成更深远的影响。

  ACT III

  By 1965, more than six million women were taking the Pill. American society was beginning to change.

  1965年,已经有超过6百万的女性在服用避孕药。美国社会也发生了变化。

  Anita Fream

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(编辑:小文来源:CCTV.com)