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>> 往期人物总目

  In the mid-1950’s Puerto Rico was one of the most densely populated countries in the world and it was important for researchers who wanted to promote the pill to be able to say, look, it worked in Puerto Rico with a population that was undereducated and poor. Therefore if it worked there, it can work anywhere.

  50年代中期,波多黎各是世界上人口密度最大的国家之一,人口教育程度和生活水平都不高,这样研究药品的人将来就可以说,你们看,这种药在波多黎各已经奏效了。就是说,如果在这里有效的话,换到哪里也都能有效。

  G.D. Searle was willing to provide the pills and birth control officials in Puerto Rico were delighted to be part of a scientific experiment.

  西尔列制药公司愿意提供药品,而波多黎各计划生育部门也欣然承诺将协助试验工作。

  Annette Ramirez

  By the early ‘50s, Puerto Rico saw anything experimental as something pioneering and innovative and wonderful. Plus the island was in the midst of industrialization and there were a lot of jobs for women so all of a sudden there are all these factories ...and women all of a sudden had this opportunity to work outside the home and then children became something that they had to contend with.

  50年代初期,任何实验性的东西在波多黎各政府看来,都属于开创性的,美好的。而且岛上正在大搞工业化建设,短期内出现了很多工厂,为妇女提供了大量就业机会。妇女们突然有了这样离家外出工作的机会,就必须解决孩子的问题。

  The first large-scale trial of the contraceptive Pill was launched in April 1956 at Rio Piédras, a brand-new housing project. Though Puerto Rico was overwhelmingly Catholic, many women were eager to participate.

  第一批避孕药物试验始于1956年4月,开展地区是一个叫做里奥佩德拉斯的新建住宅区。尽管很多波多黎各人也是信仰天主教,但妇女们还是非常乐于参与试验。

  Annette Ramirez

  Dogma was one thing, behavior was something else. For most of the women who were concerned with their health and with bringing up the families and with struggling day to day, the fact that this was not in line with church dogma was...was pretty much irrelevant.

  信仰教条是一回事儿,生活现实是另一回事儿。很多妇女都要考虑她们自己的承受能力,家庭的负担,每天为了生计操劳。这与教条中描绘的情景可不一样,完全不一样。

  The women would take a pill with 10mg of progesterone, to stop ovulation, and a smaller amount of estrogen to ease discomfort. Doctors knew little about the consequences of hormones. The volunteers knew even less.

  参加试验的女性要服用含有10毫克孕酮的避孕药以阻止排卵,然后再服用少量雌性激素减轻不适的感觉。但目前医生对于荷尔蒙的其它作用还知之甚少,这些志愿者就更无从知晓了。

  Liz Watkins

  Informed consent, the way we understand it today, did not exist in the 1950’s.

  Trials were much less closely regulated than they are today. Uh, a...a useful example to look at would be the polio pill vaccine. And think about the fact that two million school children were signed up to test this largely unknown vaccine to see if it worked against polio or not. People were much more receptive to medical science and to its products and were much more willing to participate in programs to...to see whether they would work or not.

  在50年代,人们并不像我们现在这样信息灵通。当时的实验也没有现在正规。最好的例子就是,小儿麻痹症疫苗试验,想象一下,2百万学生被注射了没有经过完全测试的疫苗,来验证疫苗的功效。当时人们对于医学研究成果和研究产物都非常容易接受,并且愿意参加试验,验证它们的功效。

  As the trials progressed, some women began to complain of nausea, dizziness, headaches, stomach pain, and vomiting.

  随着试演的进行,有些妇女开始出现不良反应,恶心、眩晕、头痛、腹痛、呕吐。

  After nine months of testing, the medical director in Puerto Rico told Pincus that the Pill was 100% effective when taken properly. Nevertheless, she argued, the drug caused “too many side reactions to be generally acceptable.”

  经过9个月的试验,波多黎各卫生部有关负责人向平卡斯通报,该药正常服用的有效率为100%,但同时还提出,“副作用太多,不宜推广。”

  Both Rock and Pincus disagreed. The adverse side effects, they believed, were insignificant.

  但是在洛克和平卡斯看来,这些副作用,无关紧要。

  Alex Sanger

  They probably dismissed it in their mind, “Well there’s something wrong with the patient,” and there was nothing wrong with the pill. They didn’t want to hear about uh, what might be wrong because they...they were so um, they...they just

  felt so strongly uh, that this pill was necessary for women’s well-being.

  他们当时也许在想,“肯定是病人本身有其它问题”,药肯定没问题。他们不想听到任何否定的声音,因为他们心里只想着,这药对于女性的生活太必要了。

  Pincus had such confidence in the new drug -- he gave it out to members of his own family. All that remained was to persuade G.D. Searle to become the first pharmaceutical company to market the pill.

  平卡斯对于新药充满信心,甚至已经向自己的家人分发。剩下的工作就是要劝说西尔列公司投入量产,将新药推向市场。

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