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>> 往期人物总目

  构对立,与大部分的男性对立,她的最大支持者,是那些几乎绝望的女性。

  By the early 1950's, Sanger’s campaign had met only limited success. Comstock laws were still on the books in thirty states across the country. And though she had managed to broaden access to diaphragms and condoms, women still did not have a foolproof method of birth control.

  截止20世纪50年代,桑格的运动只取得了很有限的成绩。《康斯托克法》仍然在全美30个州施行。尽管在她的努力之下,子宫帽和避孕套的使用得以进一步推广,但这仍然无法为妇女提供完全的避孕保证。

  What Sanger dreamed of was a simple pill. Now seventy-one, she began searching for a scientist willing to defy both law and custom.

  桑格梦想能用一种药来解决这个问题。在她71岁的时候,她开始寻找一位法律逆法律与风俗行事的科学家。

  She found him at a laboratory in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. He was the colorful and brilliant reproductive physiologist, Gregory Pincus.

  她终于在马萨诸塞州的一座实验室里找了他,一位才华横溢的繁殖生理学家,格雷戈里·平卡斯。

  As a young scientist at Harvard, he had been a rising star. In 1934, Pincus reported that he had accomplished the first in-vitro fertilization of animals.

  他作为哈佛大学一位年轻的科学家,前途无量。1934年,平卡斯完成了第一个动物试管受精研究课题。

  Andrea Tone

  The press does not treat Pincus’s remarkable breakthrough in a very flattering way. They’re very concerned about the possibility of human engineering of the reproductive process. And one magazine in particular takes a photograph of Pincus with a cigarette dangling from his mouth in the most sinister light imaginable, saying “Scientist Engineers First Rabbit Embryo.” And it conjured up images of the mad scientist at work, playing with human life in a test tube.

  媒体并没有对平卡斯的重大突破进行大肆报道。他们已经开始担心人工繁殖带来人造人的可能性。特别是有一家杂志,拍了一张平卡斯叼着烟的照片,并且特意选用了一种阴险的光线和角度,标题是“制造兔子胚胎的科学家”。让人们很容易联想到,疯狂的科学家在试管里摆弄人类生命的场面。

  Harvard denied him tenure. And Pincus set up his own small research laboratory. For the next decade, he would struggle to keep the lab solvent, even serving as his own janitor.

  哈佛将他请出校门。平卡斯便建立了自己的小型实验室,并且在随后的几十年维持着实验室的运行,即便一切要靠自己亲手搭理。

  By 1951, Pincus was desperate. His research into hormones had been slow to produce results. His client, the pharmaceutical company, G.D. Searle, cut off his funding -- and declared Pincus “a lamentable failure.”

  到1951年,平卡斯已经开始陷入绝望境地,他所进行的荷尔蒙的研究项目始终无法出成果。于是他的客户西尔列制药公司中止了资金供给,并对外称平卡斯为“愚钝的失败者”。

  That same year, he was introduced to Margaret Sanger.

  同年,平卡斯经介绍认识了玛格丽特·桑格。

  Alex Sanger

  The meeting with Gregory Pincus was a nirvana for my grandmother. It must have been absolutely stunning finally to find a man of science who understood the basic science of reproduction.

  我祖母与格利戈里·平卡斯见面以后,就好像重获新生一样。能够遇到这样一位专门从事繁殖学研究的科学家,实在是大大出乎意料。

  Pincus told her that hormones held the key to a contraceptive pill. But the research would cost much more than the few thousand dollars Sanger had available. Without millions, he explained, the pill would remain only a dream.

  平卡斯告诉她避孕药的关键就在于对荷尔蒙的控制。但这远远不是桑格手中的几千美元所能够实现的。如果没有上百万美元的研究资金,这个梦想永远无法实现。

  An Mrs. Degree...

  狄格雷夫人

  As the pill project stalled, the country was in the midst of the largest baby boom in its history. Most women were married by age 19, and more than half of them were pregnant within the first seven months.

  避孕药的研发受阻,美国也迎来了空前的人口增长高峰。此时大部分女性是在19岁就已经结婚,而婚后不到7个月就会怀上第一胎。

  Joan McCracken

  Well, the 1950’s... was also a time when it was expected that when you did go to college, you would find a husband. And it was that old “What are you graduating with,” and you hoped it was that “Mrs. degree.” And most of us did find our husbands in college. And where I went to college- I went to nursing school- and there was 88 of us. And about 80 of us either married right before we graduated, right after we graduated, or within 6 months. And so you know, looking back, it wasn’t because that was the “one and only,” but it was the one that was there.

  20世纪50年代,人们的想法是,只要你一上大学,就应该能够找到一个人作丈夫。好比被问到“你准备以什么样的身份毕业”,我就会想到“狄格雷夫人”。确实有很多人在大学里就找到了丈夫。而我所读的,是一家护士学校,我们一共88个女同学。其中有80个在毕业前,刚刚毕业,或者毕业后6个月结的婚。现在回想起来,其实那时候也没考虑什么“白马王子”,遇到合适的就满意了。

  美国小姐竞选

  Once married, women’s roles were narrowly defined.

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