ⅠA Brief Summary of Bilateral Relations|
The People's Republic of China and Mongolian People's Republic shares a boundary line of 4676 kilometers long. The two countries set up diplomatic relations on October 16, 1949. Over the 50 years since the establishment of diplomatic relations, Sino-Mongolian relations, though having undergone certain ups and downs, has maintained the mainstream of good-neighborly friendship. Especially in the last 10 years or so, bilateral relations has witnessed rapid development with notable achievements in a number of fields. In 1994, the two countries re-signed the Treaty on Friendly Relations and Cooperation Between the People’s Republic of China and Mongolia, which laid the important political and legal foundation for the healthy and stable development of bilateral relations. In 1998, during Mongolian President's state visit to China, the two countries issued a joint declaration, affirming that China and Mongolia establish a long-term stable, healthy, and good-neighborly relations of mutual trust and cooperation oriented towards the 21st century, indicating the course for future development of bilateral relations. In July, 1999, Chinese President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to Mongolia at invitation, enriching the content of bilateral long-term stable, healthy and good-neighborly relations of mutual trust and cooperation. In January, 2002, Nambaryn Enkhbayar, Prime Minister of the Mongolian People's Republic paid an official visit to China and the two sides issued a joint communiqué. Economically, mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries are constantly expanding. China has become Mongolia's largest trading partner and investor. In international affairs, both countries hold similar or identical views on many issues, support each other and carry out fruitful cooperation.
As one of China's important neighbors in the north, situated between China and Russia, Mongolian has unique geographical significance. Over the years, China has unswervingly carried out a good-neighborly policy towards Mongolia. China respects Mongolia's independence and sovereignty, respects the road of development the Mongolian people choose at their own free will, and respects the unclear-free zone status of Mongolia.
ⅡA Review of Bilateral Political Relations
Mongolia is one of the early countries which recognized the People's Republic of China. In 1960, China and Mongolia signed the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance Between the People’s Republic of China and Mongolia. In the late 1960s, bilateral relations suffered setbacks. In the 1970s, the two countries resumed the dispatch of ambassadors. In the 1980s, bilateral relations saw gradual improvement. In 1989, bilateral relations and the relations between the ruling Communist Party of China and the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party were normalized. There after, friendly bilateral relations and cooperation were constantly consolidated and developed in a number of areas like political, economic, trade, cultural, educational, military. In 1990, the two countries issues a joint communique; in 1994, the Sino-Mongolian Friendship and Mutual Assistance Treaty was revised, and Based on this treaty, the Sino-Mongolian Friendly Relations and Cooperation Treaty was signed. Both sides affirm that China and Mongolia should strengthen and develop friendly relations and cooperation on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful coexistence.
Major Mongolian leaders who have visited China included: Prime Minister Tsedenbal (1952,1959,1962), Chairman of presidium of the People's Great Hural Sambuu (1954), First Secretary of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Bamba (1956), Chairman of the People's Great Hural Jargalsaikhan (1960), Chairman of the People's Great Hural Rinchin (1988), Chairman of presidium of the People's Great Hural P.Ochirbat (1990), Chairman of the Central Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party G. Ochirbat (1990), Vice President and Chairman of the State Baga R. Gonchigdorj (1991), Prime Minister Byambasuren (1992), Chairman of the People's Great Hural N.Bagabandi (1994), Prime Minister P. Jasrai (1996), President N Bagabandi(1998)、Prime Minister R. Amargajal (1999)、 Chairman of Presidium of the People's Great Hural R. Gonchigdorj （2000/3）, Mongolian Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar visited China in January 2002.
Chinese leaders who have visited Mongolia included: Premier Zhou Enlai (1954,1960), State Vice President Zhu De (1956), State President Yang Shangkun (1991), Premier Li Peng (1994), Chairman Qiao Shi of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (1997), Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen (1997), State President Jiang Zemin (1999/7), Member of Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Wei Jianxing (2000/10).
Ⅲ Bilateral Economic and Trade Relations, Economic and Technological Cooperation
In 1951, China and Mongolia established trade relations. In 1989, the two governments established a committee for economic, trade, science and technology cooperation, which has held six meetings so far. In 1991, the two governments signed a new trade agreement, replacing governmental accounts-keeping transaction with cash transaction. In the same year, the two governments signed an agreement protecting investments. According to the statistics of the Chinese Customs, the total Sino-Mongolian trade value registered 362 million in US dollars in 2001, of which the Chinese export accounted for USD 123 million and the import USD 239 million.
China and Mongolia develops economic and trade cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, which include contracting and labor service between firms and enterprises from the two countries. Up to the end of 2001, the direct investment by China to Mongolia came to 700 items with an accumulated investment value of 135 million in US dollars, taking up some 40 percent of the total foreign investment, being the No.1 investing country in Mongolia.
Since 1985, besides governmental trade, the two countries have also initiated cross-border trade. Currently, Chinese regions and departments involved in cross-border trade with Mongolia include China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Hebei Province, Jilin Province. etc.
Ⅳ Bilateral Exchanges and Cooperation in Culture, Science and Technology, Education etc.
Sino-Mongolian cultural links was established in 1951. In recent years, according to the cultural exchange program between the Chinese government and the Mongolian government, multi-channel, multi-layer and multi-form of bilateral cultural exchanges have been initiated. In 1994, China and Mongolia signed on “Agreement on Sino-Mongolian Cultural Cooperation”. In 1997, a cultural delegation sent by Chinese government and led by Cultural Minister Liu Zhongde visited Mongolia, which was the first visit by a Chinese Cultural Minister to Mongolia since the establishment of diplomatic relations. In 1998, Mongolian Education Minister led a government delegation to China. During his stay “an executive program on 1998-2000 Sino-Mongolian Cultural Exchanges” was signed. In 1999, a cultural delegation of the Chinese Government led by Mr. Ai Qingchun, Vice Minister of Culture, visited Mongolia.
In 1987, China and Mongolia resumed exchanges in science and technology which has been suspended for more than 20 years. In the same year, the two governments signed the Plan of Scientific Cooperation from 1987 to 1988. In 1989, a Mongolian Government Science and Technology delegation visited China. Since then bilateral meetings on Scientific and technology cooperation were held regularly and annual cooperative execution plan was signed. In late August and early September, a delegation led by Lu Yongxiang, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, visited Mongolia.
The exchanges in the field of education between China and Mongolia started in 1952. Over the years, bilateral exchanges and cooperation in this field have developed smoothly. In 1996, Minister of Science and Education of Mongolia Tomorochir visited China. During this visit, the two governments signed the program of educational exchange and cooperation from 1996 to 2000 between China and Mongolia. In 1998, China and Mongolia signed the agreement on mutual recognition of academic degrees and credentials. In May 2002, a delegation headed by Zhang Tianbao, Vice-minister with Ministry of Education paid a visit to Mongolia and Mongolians for advanced and postgraduate studies in China added up to some 200 heads while Chinese for further studies in Mongolia came to 15 in number plus a teacher to teach Chinese in Mongolia.
With the development of bilateral ties, consular relations between the two countries have constantly developed. In 1986, the two governments signed the Sino-Mongolian Consular Treaty in Beijing. In 1990, the Mongolian government reopened its consulate-general in Hohhot. In 1996, Mongolia's consulate-general in Hohhot officially opened its branch office in Erlian City of China ' Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. In 1997, the two countries signed the agreement on the maintenance of Mongolia's honorary consulate-general in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People ' Republic of China. At present, the two countries exercise mutual exemption of visas for personnel holders of diplomatic passports, service passports and passports for public affairs. The development of the Sino-Mongolian consular relations plays an active role in promoting the bilateral economic, trade, and personnel exchanges.
In 1991, China and Mongolia signed the agreement on border areas emigration control points an their administrative system. According to the agreement, the two countries have opened ten pairs of border ports, among which Erlian of China and Zamyn Uud of Mongolia are open throughout the year, the rest nine pairs are seasonal.
At present, China and Mongolia have opened regular flights services between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing, and Mongolia has opened regular flights services between Ulaanbaatar and Hohhot.
Ⅵ. Major Bilateral Agreements
i. The Boundary Treaty Between the People's Republic of China and the People's Republic of Mongolia (signed on 26 December 1962)
ii. The Consular Treaty Between the People's Republic of China and the People's Republic of Mongolia (signed on 9 August 1986)
iii. The Treaty on Friendly Relations and Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and Mongolia (signed on 29 April 1994)